Exalpha Biologicals, Inc.

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FIX&PERM Cell Fixation and Permeabilization Kit

Flow cytometric analyses with monoclonal antibodies were so far mainly restricted to cell surface molecules. Intracellular structures such as cytoplasmic or nuclear enzymes, oncoproteins, cytokines, immunoglobulins etc. were largely excluded from such studies. Also excluded from flow cytometric studies were cytoplasmic localizations of well-established membrane molecules like CD3 and CD22, which, in their cytoplasmic form, are the most reliable lineage markers in undifferentiated leukemia. With the FIX&PERM® Kit flow cytometric analysis of intracellular antigens has become as easy as surface antigen studies. The only prerequisite is the availability of suitable antibody conjugates. Most of the available monoclonal antibody conjugates can be used with the FIX&PERM® Kit, some determinants are sensitive, however, to the fixation step involved. This and the optimal fixation time have to be tested for each reagent.


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Exalpha Biologicals, Inc.


  • Product Code: X1588P
  • Size: 100 µg
  • Availability: In Stock In Stock
  • Price (USD): $244

Cat #

X1588P		 Quantity:      

Data Sheet

Product Name



TYRO protein tyrosine kinase-binding protein; DNAX-activation protein 12; Killer-activating receptor-associated protein; KARAP; TYROBP



Product Type

Polyclonal Antibody


Human, Mouse


Western Blot, Immunoprecipitation


Ammonium Sulfate Precipitation


100 µg

Price (USD)



DAP12 is a transmembrane adaptor protein that is non-covalently associated with several cell surface receptors on natural killer (NK), myeloid, and presumably neuronal cells (1,2). DAP12 contains an ITAM domain that preferentially recruits the protein tyrosine kinase Syk to initiate signal transduction (3). Deficiency of DAP12 results in reduced antigen presentation function by myeloid cells and defects in function of certain NK cell receptors in mice (4,5), as well as presenile dementia and bone cysts in humans (6).


Recombinant DAP12 protein

Positive Control

NKp44 positive cells


Provided as solution in phosphate buffered saline with 0.08% sodium azide

Customer Storage

Product should be stored at -20°C. Aliquot to avoid freeze/thaw cycles

Product Image

Image Legend

Immunoprecipitation using DAP12 antibody on MHC class I (1) and NKp44 (2) positive cells.

Database Links:



1. Lanier, L.L. & Bakker, A.B. 'The ITAM-bearing transmembrane adaptor DAP12 in lymphoid and myeloid cell function.' Immunol. Today 2000, 21:611-614

2. Campbell, K.S. & Colonna, M. 'DAP12: a key accessory protein for relaying signals by natural killer cell receptors.' Intl J Biochem Cell Biol 1999, 31:631-636

3. McVicar, D.W., et al. 'DAP12-mediated signal transduction in natural killer cells. A dominant role for the Syk protein-tyrosine kinase.' J Biol Chem 1998, 273:32934-32942

4. Bakker, A.B., et al. 'DAP12-deficient mice fail to develop autoimmunity due to impaired antigen priming.' Immunity 2000, 13:345-353

5. Tomasello E., et al. 'Combined natural killer cell and dendritic cell functional deficiency in KARAP/DAP12 loss of function mutant mice.' Immunity 2000, 13:355-363

6. Paloneva, J., et al. 'Loss-of-function mutations in TYROBP (DAP12) result in presenile dementia with bone cysts.' Nature Genetics 2000, 25:357-361

7. Zou, Wei. et al., 'DAP12 Couples c-Fms Activation to the Osteoclast Cytoskeleton by Recruitment of Syk'. Molecular Cell, Aug 8, 2008, Vol 31 (3) 422-431. WB Using X1588P

8. Campbell K.S. er al. 'NKp44 Triggers NK Cell Activation through DAP12 Association That Is Not Influenced by a Putative Cytoplasmic Inhibitory Sequence'. Journal of Immunology, 2004 Vol 172

Product Specific References

This product has been used in:

1. Zou, W., et al, 'DAP12 Couples c-Fms activation to the osteoclast cytoskeleton by recruitment of Syk' Molecultar Cell 2008, 31, 3, 422-431