Exalpha Biologicals, Inc.

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FIX&PERM Cell Fixation and Permeabilization Kit

Flow cytometric analyses with monoclonal antibodies were so far mainly restricted to cell surface molecules. Intracellular structures such as cytoplasmic or nuclear enzymes, oncoproteins, cytokines, immunoglobulins etc. were largely excluded from such studies. Also excluded from flow cytometric studies were cytoplasmic localizations of well-established membrane molecules like CD3 and CD22, which, in their cytoplasmic form, are the most reliable lineage markers in undifferentiated leukemia. With the FIX&PERM® Kit flow cytometric analysis of intracellular antigens has become as easy as surface antigen studies. The only prerequisite is the availability of suitable antibody conjugates. Most of the available monoclonal antibody conjugates can be used with the FIX&PERM® Kit, some determinants are sensitive, however, to the fixation step involved. This and the optimal fixation time have to be tested for each reagent.


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Exalpha Biologicals, Inc.

chx 10 (Visual system homeobox 2) (NT)

  • Product Code: X1180P
  • Size: 250 µg
  • Availability: In Stock In Stock
  • Price (USD): $244

Cat #

X1180P		 Quantity:      

Data Sheet

Product Name

chx 10 (Visual system homeobox 2) (NT)


Ceh-10 homeodomain-containing homolog





Product Type

Polyclonal Antibody


Human, Mouse, Rat, Chicken


Western Blot, Immunohistochemistry (Frozen Sections)


Ammonium Sulfate Precipitation


250 µg

Price (USD)



Chx10 is a 46kDa homeodomain protein of the paired-like class that is essential for development of the mammalian eye. Mutations in Chx10 cause microphthalmia, a cause of congenital blindness in humans, and the ocular retardation (or) phenotype in mice. In the developing mouse retina Chx10 is expressed in retinal progenitors, while in the mature retina, Chx10 expression becomes restricted to bipolar neurons. Concurrent with these expression patterns, the Chx10-/- (or) retina is thin due to a defect in proliferation of retinal progenitors, and lacks bipolar neurons. Chx10 is also expressed in the developing brainstem, thalamus, and spinal cord.


Antibody raised against a recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids 1 to 131 derived from the N terminal of the human Chx10 protein conjugated to KLH.

Positive Control

Rat or mouse retinal tissue lysate. Suitable for use against recombinant proteins conjugated to OVA, GST, His tags and other.


Provided as solution in phosphate buffered saline with 0.08% sodium azide

Customer Storage

Product should be stored at -20°C. Aliquot to avoid freeze/thaw cycles

Target Molecular Weight


Product Image

Image Legend

Western blot analysis using anti-Chx10 (NT) antibody at 1 µg/ml on rat liver (A), retina tissue lysate (B), mouse liver (C) and retina (D) tissue lysate.

Database Links:



1. Liu, I.S., et al. Developmental expression of a novel murine homeobox gene (Chx10): evidence for roles in determination of the neuroretina and inner nuclear layer. Neuron 1994, 13, 377-393
2. Chen, C.M. & Cepko, C.L. Expression of Chx10 and Chx10-1 in the developing chicken retina. Mech. Dev. 2000, 90, 293-297
3. Ferda Percin, E., et al. Human microphthalmia associated with mutations in the retinal homeobox gene CHX10. Nat. Genet. 2000, 25, 397-401
4. Nittner, D., et al. Synthetic lethality between Rb, p53 and Dicer or miR-17?92 in retinal progenitors suppresses retinoblastoma formation. Nature Cell Biology (2012), 14, 958-965
5. Kay, J.N., et al. Neurod6 expression defines new retinal amacrine cell subtypes and regulates their fate. Nature Neuroscience (2011), 14, 965-972
6. Eiraku, M., et al. Self-organizing optic-cup morphogenesis in three-dimensional culture. Nature (2011), 472, 51-56
7. Pierfelice, T.J., et al. Notch3 Activation Promotes Invasive Glioma Formation in a Tissue Site-Specific Manner. Cancer Res., 71, 1115-1125 (2011).

Product Specific References

This product has been used in:

1. Qiu, F., et al, 'A Comprehensive Negative Regulatory Program Controlled by Brn3b to Ensure Ganglion Cell Specification from Multipotential Retinal Precursors' Journal of Neuroscience (2008), 28, , 3392-3403
2. Elshatory, Y., et a, 'Islet-1 Controls the Differentiation of Retinal Bipolar and Cholinergic Amacrine Cells' Journal of Neuroscience (2007), 27, , 12707-12720
3. Osakada, F., et al, 'Wnt Signaling Promotes Regeneration in the Retina of Adult Mammals' Journal of Neuroscience (2007), 27, , 4210-4219
4. Nittner, D., et al. 'Synthetic lethality between Rb, p53 and Dicer or miR-17?92 in retinal progenitors suppresses retinoblastoma formation.' Nature Cell Biology (2012), 14, 958?965
5. Tiwari, S., et al. ?Meckelin 3 Is Necessary for Photoreceptor Outer Segment Development in Rat Meckel Syndrome.? PLoS One, 8, e59306 (2013)
6. Sherry, D.M., et al. ?Differential Developmental Deficits in Retinal Function in the Absence of either Protein Tyrosine Sulfotransferase-1 or -2.? PLoS One, 7, e39702 (2012)
7. Luo, H., et al. ?Forkhead box N4 (Foxn4) activates Dll4-Notch signaling to suppress photoreceptor cell fates of early retinal progenitors.? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 109, E553-E562 (2012)
8. Haynes, T., et al. ?Complement anaphylatoxin C3a is a potent inducer of embryonic chick retina regeneration.? Nat. Commun. 4, 2312 (2013)
9. Wakabayashi, T., et al. ?Prolonged Expression of Puma in Cholinergic Amacrine Cells During the Development of Rat Retina.? J. Histochem. Cytochem., 60, 777-788 (2012)
10. Bai, L., et al. ?Birth of Cone Bipolar Cells, but Not Rod Bipolar Cells, Is Associated with Existing RGCs.? PLoS One, 9, e83686 (2014)
11. Nakano, T., et al. ?Self-formation of optic cups and storable stratified neural retina from human ESCs.? Cell Stem Cell (2012) 10, 771-785
12. Huang, L., et al. ?Bhlhb5 is Required for the Subtype Development of Retinal Amacrine and Bipolar Cells in Mice? Dev. Dyn. (2014), 243, 279-289
13. Wang, W., et al. ?Swine Cone and Rod Precursors Arise Sequentially and Display Sequential and Transient Integration and Differentiation Potential Following Transplantation? Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., (2014), 55, 301-309
14. Voinescu, P.E., et al. ?Birthdays of retinal amacrine cell subtypes are systematically related to their molecular identity and soma position? J. Comp. Neurol., (2009), 517, 737
15. Roy, A., et al. ?Onecut transcription factors act upstream of Isl1 to regulate spinal motoneuron diversification? Development, (2012), 139, 3109-3119
16. Prasov, L., et al. ?Pushing the envelope of retinal ganglion cell genesis: context dependent function of Math5 (Atoh7)? Dev. Biol. (2012), 368, 214-230
17. Jiang, Y., et al. ?Transcription Factors SOX4 and SOX11 Function Redundantly to Regulate the Development of Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells? J. Biol. Chem. (2013), 288, 18429-18438
18. Hufnagel, R.B., et al. ?Heterochronic misexpression of Ascl1 in the Atoh7 retinal cell lineage blocks cell cycle exit? Mol. Cell Neurosci. (2013), 54, 108-120
19. Firl, A., et al. ?Extrasynaptic glutamate and inhibitory neurotransmission modulate ganglion cell participation during glutamatergic retinal waves? J. Neurophysiol. (2013), 109, 1969-1978
20. Bassett, E.A., et al. ?Overlapping Expression Patterns and Redundant Roles for AP-2 Transcription Factors in the Developing Mammalian Retina? Dev. Dyn. (2012), 24, 814-829