Frontier™ ApoMark DNA Fragmentation Detection Kits
Determination of apoptosis with Exalpha's ApoMark™ DNA Fragmentation Detection KitsThe term apoptosis was first introduced in 1972 by Kerr et.al. (1) to describe a process of active cell death that was distinct from necrosis. Cell death by apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, is the process by which unwanted cells are eliminated without causing damage to surrounding tissues whereas necrosis can lead to inflammation. During apoptosis, cells undergo characteristic changes. The morphological changes that occur during apoptosis have been well documented. These changes include cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, chromatin condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies and engulfment of apoptotic bodies by phagocytic cells (1).
Apoptosis is a complex energy-dependent process that involves a cascade of molecular events. Three separate pathways of apoptosis have been identified: - intrinsic, extrinsic and the perforin/granzyme pathway, which all lead to the same execution pathway and the biochemical features that are characteristic of apoptosis. These biochemical features include DNA fragmentation, degradation of cytoskeletal and nuclear proteins, cross-linking of proteins, formation of apoptotic bodies and uptake by phagocytic cells (2).
In healthy tissues, apoptosis plays an essential role in cellular turnover and in a diverse range of biological processes including embryonic development, development of immune and nervous systems, wound healing and tissue re-modelling. Dysregulation of apoptosis contributes to the pathogenesis of a range of conditions including autoimmune conditions, neurodegenerative diseases and various types of cancer (1). The importance of apoptosis in tissue homeostasis and pathogenesis underlies the drive to understand the mechanisms of apoptosis with the aim of identifying therapeutic candidates.
Various research tools are commercially available that are designed to identify and measure specific morphological and biochemical features characteristic of apoptosis. Exalpha's ApoMark™ DNA Fragmentation Detection kits are designed to recognise apoptotic nuclei in situ using a molecular biology-based, end-labelling technique. Exalpha's ApoMark™ kits are suitable for use with paraffin and fresh frozen tissue sections. Exalpha's ApoMark™ DNA Fragmentation Detection Kits are a non-isotopic system for the labelling of DNA breaks in apoptotic cell nuclei in paraffin-embedded tissue sections, tissue cryosections and in cell preparations fixed on slides.
During the apoptotic process, endogenous endonucleases cleave DNA into fragments generating free 3’-OH groups at the end of each DNA fragment. In Exalpha's ApoMark™ DNA Fragmentation Detection assays, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) binds to exposed 3’-OH ends of DNA fragments and catalyzes the addition of biotin-labeled deoxynucleotides. Biotinylated nucleotides are subsequently detected using either streptavidin-fluorochrome conjugates or streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase and diaminobenzidine (DAB).
Frontier™ ApoMark™ DNA Fragmentation Detection Kit – Colorimetric (DAB) assay
Frontier™ ApoMark™ DNA Fragmentation Detection Kit – Fluorescent assay
- FL488: X2835K1 - 30 tests
- FL488: X2835K2 - 60 tests
- FL549: X2836K1 - 30 tests
- FL549: X2836K2 - 60 tests
- FL594: X2837K1 - 30 tests
- FL594: X2837K2 - 60 tests
- FL649: X2838K1 - 30 tests
- FL649: X2838K2 - 60 tests
It is worth noting that our products are shipped at 2-8°C verses many competitors which must be shipped in dry ice. Also our kits are very stable and because of this we allow short term 2-8°C storage in the lab whereas most of our competitors which need to be frozen and thawed after each use.
- J. F. R. Kerr, A. H. Wyllie, and A. R. Currie (1972) Apoptosis: A Basic Biological Phenomenon with Wide-ranging Implications in Tissue Kinetics. Br J Cancer. 26(4): 239–257.
- Elmore S. (2007) Apoptosis: a review of programmed cell death. Toxicol Pathol. 35(4):495-516.