Exalpha Biologicals, Inc.

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FIX&PERM Cell Fixation and Permeabilization Kit

Flow cytometric analyses with monoclonal antibodies were so far mainly restricted to cell surface molecules. Intracellular structures such as cytoplasmic or nuclear enzymes, oncoproteins, cytokines, immunoglobulins etc. were largely excluded from such studies. Also excluded from flow cytometric studies were cytoplasmic localizations of well-established membrane molecules like CD3 and CD22, which, in their cytoplasmic form, are the most reliable lineage markers in undifferentiated leukemia. With the FIX&PERM® Kit flow cytometric analysis of intracellular antigens has become as easy as surface antigen studies. The only prerequisite is the availability of suitable antibody conjugates. Most of the available monoclonal antibody conjugates can be used with the FIX&PERM® Kit, some determinants are sensitive, however, to the fixation step involved. This and the optimal fixation time have to be tested for each reagent.

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Exalpha Biologicals, Inc.

Cytokeratin 4

  • Product Code: X1729M
  • Size: 100 µg
  • Availability: In Stock In Stock
  • Price (USD): $335

Cat #

X1729M		 Quantity:      

Data Sheet

Product Name

Cytokeratin 4

Host/Source

Mouse

Clone

6B10

Isotype

IgG1

Product Type

Monoclonal Antibody

Reactivity

Human, Canine, Feline

Applications

Immunohistochemistry, Immunocytochemistry, Western Blot, Flow Cytometry

Purification

Protein A/G Chromatography

Size

100 µg

Price (USD)

$335

Background

Cytokeratins are a subfamily of intermediate filament proteins and are characterized by a remarkable biochemical diversity, represented in human epithelial tissues by at least 20 different polypeptides. They range in molecular weight between 40 kDa and 68 kDa and isoelectric pH between 4.9 ? 7.8. The individual human cytokeratins are numbered 1 to 20. The various epithelia in the human body usually express cytokeratins which are not only characteristic of the type of epithelium, but also related to the degree of maturation or differentiation within an epithelium. Cytokeratin subtype expression patterns are used to an increasing extent in the distinction of different types of epithelial malignancies. The cytokeratin antibodies are not only of assistance in the differential diagnosis of tumors using immunohistochemistry on tissue sections, but are also a useful tool in cytopathology and flow cytometric assays.

Immunogen

Hybridoma produced by the fusion of splenocytes from BALB/c mice immunized with a cytokeratin preparation extracted from human esophagus and SP2/0 mouse myeloma cells.

Positive Control

Antibody reacts exlcusively with cytokeratin 4 which is present in non-cornifying squamous epithelium, including cornea and transitional epithelium. Cells in certain ciliated pseudo-stratified epithelia and ductal epithelia of various exocrine glands also react with this antibody.

Formulation

Provided as solution in phosphate buffered saline with 0.08% sodium azide

Customer Storage

Product should be stored at -20°C. Aliquot to avoid freeze/thaw cycles

Database Links:

SwissProtP19013Human

References

1. van Muijen, G. N., et al. (1986). Cell type heterogeneity of cytokeratin expression in complex epithelia and carcinomas as demonstrated by monoclonal antibodies specific for cytokeratins nos. 4 and 13, Exp Cell Res 162, 97-113.

2. Weikel, W., et al. (1987). Characterization of subcolumnar reserve cells and other epithelia of human uterine cervix. Demonstration of diverse cytokeratin polypeptides in reserve cells, Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol Incl Mol Pathol 54, 98-110.

3. Ivanyi, D., et al. (1992). Patterns of expression of feline cytokeratins in healthy epithelia and mammary carcinoma cells, Am J Vet Res 53, 304-14.

4. Vos, J. H., et al. (1992). Immunohistochemistry with keratin monoclonal antibodies in canine tissues: urogenital tract, respiratory tract, (neuro-)endocrine tissues, choroid plexus and spinal cord, J Vet Med 39, 721-40.

5. Ivanyi, D., et al. (1993). Cytokeratins as markers of initial stages of squamous metaplasia in feline mammary carcinomas, Am J Vet Res 54, 1095-102.

6. Corver, W. E., et al. (2000). Four-color multiparameter DNA flow cytometric method to study phenotypic intratumor heterogeneity in cervical cancer, Cytometry 39, 96-107.