Exalpha Biologicals, Inc.

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FIX&PERM Cell Fixation and Permeabilization Kit

Flow cytometric analyses with monoclonal antibodies were so far mainly restricted to cell surface molecules. Intracellular structures such as cytoplasmic or nuclear enzymes, oncoproteins, cytokines, immunoglobulins etc. were largely excluded from such studies. Also excluded from flow cytometric studies were cytoplasmic localizations of well-established membrane molecules like CD3 and CD22, which, in their cytoplasmic form, are the most reliable lineage markers in undifferentiated leukemia. With the FIX&PERM® Kit flow cytometric analysis of intracellular antigens has become as easy as surface antigen studies. The only prerequisite is the availability of suitable antibody conjugates. Most of the available monoclonal antibody conjugates can be used with the FIX&PERM® Kit, some determinants are sensitive, however, to the fixation step involved. This and the optimal fixation time have to be tested for each reagent.

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We are pleased to announce that Peter Rutten has now started in his role as Operations Director here at Exalpha Biologicals Inc. Peter has a Master’s of Science degree in Industrial and Organizational Psychology and this has lead him down a very business orientated career path. Peter is looking forward to working with the team at Exalpha. Peters primary focus is the customer experience and he will be working with the Laboratory team, the Quality Control team and the Order Processing team to ensure this focus is achieved. We all wish Peter well in his new role.

Exalpha Biologicals, Inc.

GPR4

  • Product Code: X1638P
  • Size: 100 µg
  • Availability: In Stock In Stock
  • Price (USD): $371

Cat #

X1638P		 Quantity:      

Data Sheet

Product Name

GPR4

Host/Source

Rabbit

Isotype

IgG

Product Type

Antigen Immunoaffinity Purified Polyclonal

Reactivity

Human

Applications

Western Blot

Purification

Antigen Immunoaffiinity Purification

Size

100 µg

Price (USD)

$371

Background

Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) are bioactive lipid molecules involved in numerous biologicals processes. GPR4 shares sequence homology with OGR1 (51%), the highest of all GPCR?s. GPR4 has been identified as another high affinity receptor for SPC and low affinity receptor for LPC. SPC and LPC stimulate kinase activation and DNA synthesis stimulated, both of which are pertussis toxin-sensitive, suggesting Gi-heterotrimeric G protein involvement. The GPR4 subfamily of GPCR?s consists of four receptors that share significant sequence homology; OGR1, TDAG8 and G2A. G2A has been shown to be a potent transforming oncogene. GPR4 also malignantly transforms NIH3T3 cells and TDAG8 malignantly transforms the normal mammary epithelial cell line NMuMG. Overexpression of GPR4 or TDGA8 in HEK293 cells leads to transcriptional activation independent of exogenously added ligand. TDAG8 and GPR4 are also overexpressed in a range of human cancer tissues suggestive of a driving role in maintaining tumor formation.

Immunogen

Synthetic peptide derived from the GPR4 protein.

Positive Control

Human brain lysate (Cat. No. X1633C)

Formulation

Provided as ligand affinity purified antibody in phosphate buffered saline with 0.08% sodium azide

Customer Storage

Product should be stored at -20°C. Aliquot to avoid freeze/thaw cycles

Database Links:

SwissProtP46093Human

References

1. Sin, W.C., et al. 'G protein-coupled receptors GPR4 and TDAG8 are oncogenic and overexpressed in human cancers.' Oncogene 2004

2. Yun, M.R., et al. 'The action mode of lysophosphatidylcholine in human monocytes.' J. Pharmacol. Sci. 2004, 94, 45-50

3. Bektas, M., et al. 'The G protein-coupled receptor GPR4 suppresses ERK activation in a ligand-independent manner.' Biochemistry 2003, 42, 12181-12191

4. Lum, H., et al. 'Inflammatory stress increases receptor for lysophosphatidylcholine in human microvascular endothelial cells.' Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 2003, 285, H1786-H1789

5. Xu, Y. 'Sphingosylphosphorylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine: G protein-coupled receptors and receptor-mediated signal transduction.' Biochim Biophys Acta 2002, 1582, 81-88

6. Zhu, K., et al. 'Sphingosylphosphorylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine are ligands for the G protein-coupled receptro GPR4.' J. Biol. Chem. 2001, 276, 41325-41335

7. An, S., et al. 'Cloning, sequencing and tissue distribution of two related G protein-coupled receptor candidates expressed prominently in human lung tissue.' FEBS Lett. 1995, 375, 121-124