Exalpha Biologicals, Inc.

Accelerating the Pace of Discovery

Product Highlight

Mouse anti-M13 phage coat protein g8p

Antibodies recognising M13 filamentous phage coat proteins are instrumental in the selection and detection of phages expressing specific antibody fragments or peptide sequences at their surface. The monoclonal antibodies manufactured and supplied by Exalpha react with either the pIII (g3p) or pVIII (g8p) proteins of M13 filamentous bacteriophage. All antibodies are available in a purified format. The antibodies are fully validated and are suitable for a wide range of techniques including:

  • ELISA
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Western Blot
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Immunoprecipitation
For more information, click here for our M13 Bacteriophage information page.

News

Two more of our excellent products have been published by PubMed:

Potential actionable targets in appendiceal cancer detected by immunohistochemistry, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and mutational analysis
Borazanci, E., et al., J. Gastrointest. Oncol., 8, 164-172 (2017)
Using Exalpha SPARC Antibody (Cat. No. X1867P)

Molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological interactions of the protein kinase C-β inhibitor enzastaurin and erlotinib in non-small cell lung cancer cells
Steen, N.V., et al., Am. J. Cancer Res., 7, 816-830 (2017)
Using Exalpha's FITC labeled anti PY20 Antibody (Cat. No. X1017)

The Edg family of G-Protein Coupled Receptors

The endothelial cell differentiation gene (Edg) family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) function as receptors for Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and structurally related sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). LPA and S1P are predominantly released by activated platelets and are present in blood plasma and serum, mainly bound to albumin and lipoprotein. Both LPA and S1P mediate similar biological cell responses including cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis. LPA is a multifunctional signalling molecule that is involved in multiple biological processes including inflammation, platelet activation, wound healing and tissue regeneration (1). S1P also elicits a wide variety of responses by cells and regulates a wide range of biological process including cell proliferation, angiogenesis, cardiac development, immunity and cell motility (2). Dysregulation of S1P signalling is thought to contribute to the pathology of a wide range of diseases including cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, osteoporosis and progression of autoimmune conditions such as multiple sclerosis (3).

The diverse actions of LPA and S1P are mediated primarily through the binding of Edg receptors, and the regulation of various signalling pathways. Edg receptors are developmentally regulated and differentially expressed in cells, tissues and organs. Two subfamilies of Edg receptors exist based on their structure and function. The S1P receptor subfamily comprises Edg1, Edg3, Edg5, Edg6 and Edg8, which have been re-named spingosine-1-phosphate receptors S1P1, S1P3, S1P2, S1P4 and S1P5 respectively. Whereas the LPA receptor subfamily comprise Edg2, Edg4 and Edg7, which have been re-named lysophosphatidic acid receptors LPA1, LPA2 and LPA3 respectively.

Three Edg/LPA receptors have been identified for LPA. LPA1 (Edg2), is widely expressed. It is found in most tissues with the highest expression in brain and heart. On binding with LPA, LPA1 (Edg2) couples to heterotrimeric G proteins Gi/o, Gq/11 and G12/13. Loss of LPA1 receptor function has been linked to a range of pathological conditions including cancer, neuropathic pain and male infertility (4). LPA2 (Edg4) is predominantly found in the testes, prostate, pancreas, spleen and thymus. Whereas LPA3 (Edg7) is found in testes, prostate, pancreas, heart and lung. LPA2 (Edg4) and LPA3 (Edg7) couple G-proteins Gi/o and Gq to activate similar signalling pathways to LPA1 (Edg2). Like LPA1 (Edg2), LPA2 (Edg4) also couples G12/13.

Five Edg/S1P receptors have been identified which bind S1P. S1P1 (Edg1), S1P3 (Edg3), S1P2 (Edg5), S1P4 (Edg6) and S1P5 (Edg8) couple to multiple types of G proteins and mediate effects through ras and MAP kinase, rho, phospholipase C (PLC), and protein tyrosine kinases. S1P1 (Edg1) is widely expressed in most tissues. On binding S1P, S1P1 (Edg1) couples to G protein Gi/o, and mediates activation of Ras-MAP Kinase, Ca2+ mobilization, activation of PLC, and inhibition of adenylate cyclase (5). Loss of the receptor affects a wide range of processes including angiogenesis, neurogenesis, embryonic development and lymphocyte trafficking (4).

S1P2 (Edg5) and S1P3 (Edg3) are widely expressed in most tissues in adults and some embryonic tissues. On binding S1P, S1P2 (Edg5) can couple G-proteins Gi/o, Gs, Gq and G12/13 and is involved in cell proliferation and motility. Deletion of the S1P2 (Edg5) gene has been linked to cellular defects affecting hair cells, defects in vascularization and promotes angiogenesis in pathological conditions (4). S1P3 (Edg3) can couple Gi/o, Gq and G12/13, on binding S1P, but predominantly couples Gq leading to an increase in [Ca2+]i and PLC. Studies suggest that S1P3 (Edg3) regulates a variety of cell types and biological processes including regulating lymphoid endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, myocardial perfusion and regulation of heart rate in rodents. (4).

S1P4 (Edg6) is primarily expressed in lymphoid tissue (6) and couples G-protein Gs, Gq and G12/13. S1P5 (Edg8) is expressed in the brain and spleen tissue and can couple G-proteins Gs, Gq and G12/13. Deletion of S1P5 (Edg8) is reported to affect the trafficking of natural killer cells.

The following is a list of S1P and LPA receptor products available from Exalpha:

Product List:

Cat. No. Name Size
EDGSP EDG Sample Pack (20ug each) (DISCONTINUED) 1 EA
c175ms EDG-3, N terminal (DISCONTINUED) Monoclonal Antibody 50 µg
c190ms EDG-5, C terminal (DISCONTINUED) Monoclonal Antibody 50 µg
c185ms EDG-5, N terminal (DISCONTINUED) Monoclonal Antibody 50 µg
X1093PS EDG1 (S1P1) (C Terminal) Polyclonal Antibody 50 µg
c174ps EDG2, C terminal Polyclonal Antibody 50 µg
c175m EDG3 (S1P3) (N Terminal) DISCONTINUED Monoclonal Antibody 100 µg
c176ms EDG3, C terminal (DISCONTINUED) Monoclonal Antibody 50 µg
X1225B EDG4 (LPA2) (N Terminal) Blocking Peptide 50 µg
c180m EDG4 (LPA2), N terminal (DISCONTINUED) Monoclonal Antibody 100 µg
c181m EDG4 (LPA2), C terminal (DISCONTINUED) Monoclonal Antibody 100 µg
c181ms EDG4 (LPA2), C terminal (DISCONTINUED) Monoclonal Antibody 50 µg
c180ms EDG4 (LPA2), N terminal (DISCONTINUED) Monoclonal Antibody 50 µg
X1534B EDG6 (S1P4), C terminal (Replace with X1312B) Blocking Peptide 50 µg
X1094PS EDG8 (S1P5), C terminal (DISCONTINUED) Polyclonal Antibody 50 µg
X1570P Lysophosphatidic Acid 2 (LPA2) Receptor (EDG4) CT Polyclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1652P Lysophosphatidic Acid Acetyltransferse beta Antigen Immunoaffinity Purified Polyclonal 100 µg
X1218C Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 1 (EDG2) Control Lysate 100 µl
X1274MP Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 1 (EDG2) Membrane Preparation 50 Tests
c174p Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 1 CT (EDG-2) Polyclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1269B Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 1 CT (EDG-2) Blocking Peptide 50 µg
X1219C Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 2 (EDG-4) Control Lysate 100 µl
X1546MP Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 2 (EDG-4) Membrane Preparation 50 Tests
X1573B Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 2 (EDG4) CT Blocking Peptide 50 µg
X1220C Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 3 (EDG-7) Control Lysate 100 µl
X1275MP Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 3 (EDG-7) Membrane Preparation 50 Tests
X1183P Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 3 CT (EDG-7) Polyclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1227B Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 3 CT (EDG-7) Blocking Peptide 50 µg
X1217C Sphingosine 1 Phosphate Receptor 1 (EDG-1) Control Lysate 100 µl
X1273MP Sphingosine 1 Phosphate Receptor 1 (EDG-1) Membrane Preparation 50 Tests
X1093P Sphingosine 1 Phosphate Receptor 1 (EDG-1) CT Polyclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1224B Sphingosine 1 Phosphate Receptor 1 (EDG-1) CT Blocking Peptide 50 µg
X1094P Sphingosine 1 Phosphate Receptor 5 CT (EDG-8) Polyclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1228B Sphingosine 1 Phosphate Receptor 5 CT (EDG-8) Blocking Peptide 50 µg
X1589P Sphingosine 1 Phosphate 3 Receptor (EDG-3) CT Polyclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1690B Sphingosine 1 Phosphate 3 Receptor (EDG-3) CT Blocking Peptide 50 µg
c176m Sphingosine 1 Phosphate 3 Receptor (EDG-3) CT Monoclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1590P Sphingosine 1 Phosphate 3 Receptor (EDG-3) NT Polyclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1182P Sphingosine 1 Phosphate 4 Receptor (CT) (EDG6) Polyclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1311C Sphingosine 1 Phosphate 4 Receptor (CT) (EDG6) Control Lysate 100 µl
X1312B Sphingosine 1 Phosphate 4 Receptor (CT) (EDG6) Blocking Peptide 50 µg
X1533M Sphingosine 1 Phosphate 4 Receptor (CT) (EDG6) Monoclonal Antibody 100 µg
X2786M Sphingosine 1 Phosphate 4 Receptor (CT) (EDG6) Alexa647 Conjugate Monoclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1626M Sphingosine 1 Phosphate 4 Receptor (CT) (EDG6) FITC Conjugate Monoclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1487C Sphingosine 1 Phosphate 4 Receptor (EDG8) Control Lysate 100 µl
X1592P Sphingosine 1 Phosphate 4 Receptor (IN) (EDG6) Polyclonal Antibody 100 µg
X2717B Sphingosine 1 Phosphate 4 Receptor (NT) (EDG6) Blocking Peptide 50 µg
X1593P Sphingosine 1 Phosphate 4 Receptor (NT) (EDG6) NT Polyclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1547MP Sphingosine 1 Phosphate Receptor 4 (EDG6) Membrane Preparation 50 Tests
X1631P Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Lyase 1 Antigen Immunoaffinity Purified Polyclonal 100 µg
X1643B Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Lyase 1 Blocking Peptide Blocking Peptide 50 µg
X1636P Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Phosphatase 1 Polyclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1644B Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Phosphatase 1 Blocking Peptide 50 µg
X1637P Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Phosphatase 2 Antigen Immunoaffinity Purified Polyclonal 100 µg
X1645B Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Phosphatase 2 Blocking Peptide 50 µg
X1627P Sphingosine Kinase 1 Polyclonal Antibody 100 µg
X2155P Sphingosine Kinase 1 Antigen Immunoaffinity Purified Polyclonal 50 µg
X2156P Sphingosine Kinase 1 Antigen Immunoaffinity Purified Polyclonal 50 µg
X1632B Sphingosine Kinase 1 Blocking Peptide Blocking Peptide 50 µg
X1877B Phospho Sphingosine Kinase 1 (Ser225), Mouse Blocking Peptide 50 µg
X1875B Sphingosine Kinase 1, Long Form, Rat Blocking Peptide 50 µg
X2038P Sphingosine Kinase 1, Long Form, Rat Polyclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1848P Sphingosine Kinase 1, Long Form, Rat Reactive Antigen Immunoaffinity Purified Polyclonal 100 µg
X1878B Sphingosine Kinase 1, Mouse Blocking Peptide 50 µg
X1882P Sphingosine Kinase 1, Mouse Antigen Immunoaffinity Purified Polyclonal 50 µg
X1849P phospho-Sphingosine Kinase 1,(pS225), Mouse Reactive Antigen Immunoaffinity Purified Polyclonal 100 µg
X1628P Sphingosine Kinase 2 Antigen Immunoaffinity Purified Polyclonal 100 µg
X1642B Sphingosine Kinase 2 Blocking Peptide Blocking Peptide 50 µg
X1775P Sphingosine Kinase 2, Long Form Polyclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1880P Sphingosine Kinase 2, Long Form, Human Antigen Immunoaffinity Purified Polyclonal 100 µg
X1881B Sphingosine Kinase 2, Long Form, Human Blocking Peptide 50 µg


References
  1. Moolenaar, WH (1995). Lysophosphatidic acid, a multifunctional phospholipid messenger. J Biol Chem.270(22):12949-52.
  2. Mendelson, K et al (2014). Sphingosine 1-phosphate signalling. Development.141(1): 5–9.
  3. Maceyka, M et al (2012) Sphingosine 1-phosphate signalling and its role in disease. Trends Cell Biol. 22(1): 50–60.
  4. Chun, J et al (2010). International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXVIII. Lysophospholipid receptor nomenclature. Pharmacol Rev.62(4):579-87.
  5. Okamoto, H et al (1998). S1P1 (EDG1) is a functional sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor that is linked via a Gi/o to multiple signaling pathways, including phospholipase C activation, Ca2+ mobilization, Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and adenylate cyclase inhibition. J Biol Chem. 273(42):27104-10.
  6. Gräler MH, Bernhardt G, Lipp M. (1998). EDG6, a novel G-protein-coupled receptor related to receptors for bioactive lysophospholipids, is specifically expressed in lymphoid tissue. Genomics. 53(2):164-9.