Exalpha Biologicals, Inc.

Accelerating the Pace of Discovery

Product Highlight

Mouse anti-M13 phage coat protein g8p

Antibodies recognising M13 filamentous phage coat proteins are instrumental in the selection and detection of phages expressing specific antibody fragments or peptide sequences at their surface. The monoclonal antibodies manufactured and supplied by Exalpha react with either the pIII (g3p) or pVIII (g8p) proteins of M13 filamentous bacteriophage. All antibodies are available in a purified format. The antibodies are fully validated and are suitable for a wide range of techniques including:

  • ELISA
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Western Blot
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Immunoprecipitation
For more information, click here for our M13 Bacteriophage information page.

News

Two more of our excellent products have been published by PubMed:

Potential actionable targets in appendiceal cancer detected by immunohistochemistry, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and mutational analysis
Borazanci, E., et al., J. Gastrointest. Oncol., 8, 164-172 (2017)
Using Exalpha SPARC Antibody (Cat. No. X1867P)

Molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological interactions of the protein kinase C-β inhibitor enzastaurin and erlotinib in non-small cell lung cancer cells
Steen, N.V., et al., Am. J. Cancer Res., 7, 816-830 (2017)
Using Exalpha's FITC labeled anti PY20 Antibody (Cat. No. X1017)

CRISPR reveals genetic master switches behind butterfly wing patterns

Recent work by Rachael Lallensack published in Nature, 18 September 2017 has shed light on the way in which the intricate patterns on butterfly wings form. It had been thought that the process of generating the beautiful and complex patterns on butterfly wings might be due to the action of a multitude of different genes. Recent studies, however, seem to indicate that only two genes are responsible for these remarkable colors and patterns. Interrupting the functioning of these genes (WntA, one of the earliest genes to be discovered to be involved in patterning and optix, which had been implicated but the involvement of which had never been directly confirmed) using crispr/cas9, resulted in ‘dulling the colours or turning the insects monochromatic’. Understanding how wing patterns form yields significant insight into the evolution of traits.

Exalpha offers numerous products for WNT/ LEF research and the TCF/LEF family of proteins. The TCF/LEF family is a group of transcription factors which bind to DNA through a high mobility group domain. They are involved in the Wnt signaling pathway, where they recruit the coactivator beta-catenin to enhancer elements of genes they target. Lymphoid Enhancer Factor -1 is a transcription factor of the High Mobility Group of DNA binding proteins. It is one member of a family of four proteins referred to as LEF/TCF transcription factors (LEF-1, TCF-1, TCF-3 and TCF-4). These factors play a crucial role in WNT/Wingless signaling, a signal transduction cascade that directs cell differentiation. Aberrant activation of the WNT/Wingless pathway is also a root cause in the genesis of certain cancers such as colon cancer, melanoma and breast cancer. LEF-1 is expressed during development in many different differentiating tissues, and in a few tissues after birth. LEF-1 expression is required for proper development of breast, teeth, hair, whiskers and the trigeminal nerve. It is redundant with TCF-1 (for T Cell Factor-1) for correct development of T lymphocytes in the thymus.

The following is a list of TCF and LEF products available from Exalpha:

Product List:

Cat. No. Name Size
T105P LEF-1 Polyclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1076M LEF-1 all isoforms Monoclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1075M LEF-1 alternate exon Monoclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1074M LEF-1 transactivation domain Monoclonal Antibody 100 µg
T100M LEF-1beta catenin Monoclonal Antibody 250 µg
T100MS LEF-1beta catenin Monoclonal Antibody 100 µg
T105M LEF/TCF/HMG Monoclonal Antibody 250 µg
T105MS LEF/TCF/HMG Monoclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1072M TCF-1 Monoclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1071M TCF-3/4 Monoclonal Antibody 100 µg
X1070M TCF-4 Monoclonal Antibody 100 µg


References
  1. Mazo-Vargas, A., et al. (2017). Macroevolutionary shifts of WntA function potentiate butterfly wing-pattern diversity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1708149114
  2. Lallensack, R. (2017). CRISPR reveals genetic master switches behind butterfly wing patterns. Nature, doi:10.1038/nature.2017.22628
  3. Barker, N., et al. (1999). Restricted High Level Expression of Tcf-4 Protein in Intestinal and Mammary Gland Epithelium. Am. J. Pathol., 154(1), 29-35.